SQL Server 2014 Enterprise Edition is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications—which may run either on the same computer or on another computer across a network (including the Internet). Microsoft markets at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server, aimed at different audiences and for workloads ranging from small single-machine applications to large Internet-facing applications with many concurrent users.
- MS SQL Server for OS/2 began as a project to port Sybase SQL Server onto OS/2 in 1989, by Sybase, Ashton-Tate, and Microsoft.
- SQL Server 4.2 for NT is released in 1993, marking the entry onto Windows NT.
- SQL Server 6.0 is released in 1995, marking the end of collaboration with Sybase; Sybase would continue developing their own variant of SQL Server, Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise, independently of Microsoft.
- SQL Server 7.0 is released in 1998, marking the conversion of the source code from C to C++.
- SQL Server 2005, released in 2005, finishes the complete revision of the old Sybase code into Microsoft code.
- SQL Server 2012, released in 2012, adds columnar in-memory storage aka xVelocity, which started new epoch in online analytics
- SQL Server 2017, released in 2017, adds Linux support for these Linux platforms: Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, Ubuntu & Docker Engine.
As of May 2020, the following versions are supported by Microsoft:
- SQL Server 2012
- SQL Server 2014
- SQL Server 2016
- SQL Server 2017
- SQL Server 2019
From SQL Server 2016 onward, the product is supported on x64 processors only.
The current version is Microsoft SQL Server 2019, released November 4, 2019. The RTM version is 15.0.2000.5.
- SQL Server Enterprise Edition includes both the core database engine and add-on services, with a range of tools for creating and managing a SQL Server cluster. It can manage databases as large as 524 petabytes and address 12 terabytes of memory and supports 640 logical processors (CPU cores).
- SQL Server Standard edition includes the core database engine, along with the stand-alone services. It differs from Enterprise edition in that it supports fewer active instances (number of nodes in a cluster) and does not include some high-availability functions such as hot-add memory (allowing memory to be added while the server is still running), and parallel indexes.
- SQL Server Web Edition is a low-TCO option for Web hosting.
- Business Intelligence
- Introduced in SQL Server 2012 and focusing on Self Service and Corporate Business Intelligence. It includes the Standard Edition capabilities and Business Intelligence tools: PowerPivot, Power View, the BI Semantic Model, Master Data Services, Data Quality Services and xVelocity in-memory analytics.
- SQL Server Workgroup Edition includes the core database functionality but does not include the additional services. Note that this edition has been retired in SQL Server 2012.
- SQL Server Express Edition is a scaled down, free edition of SQL Server, which includes the core database engine. While there are no limitations on the number of databases or users supported, it is limited to using one processor, 1 GB memory and 10 GB database files (4 GB database files prior to SQL Server Express 2008 R2). It is intended as a replacement for MSDE. Two additional editions provide a superset of features not in the original Express Edition. The first is SQL Server Express with Tools, which includes SQL Server Management Studio Basic. SQL Server Express with Advanced Services adds full-text search capability and reporting services.
- Microsoft Azure SQL Database is the cloud-based version of Microsoft SQL Server, presented as a platform as a service offering on Microsoft Azure.
- Azure SQL Data Warehouse is the cloud-based version of Microsoft SQL Server in a MPP (massively parallel processing) architecture for analytics workloads, presented as a platform as a service offering on Microsoft Azure.
- Compact (SQL CE)
- The compact edition is an embedded database engine. Unlike the other editions of SQL Server, the SQL CE engine is based on SQL Mobile (initially designed for use with hand-held devices) and does not share the same binaries. Due to its small size (1 MB DLL footprint), it has a markedly reduced feature set compared to the other editions. For example, it supports a subset of the standard data types, does not support stored procedures or Views or multiple-statement batches (among other limitations). It is limited to 4 GB maximum database size and cannot be run as a Windows service, Compact Edition must be hosted by the application using it. The 3.5 version includes support for ADO.NET Synchronization Services. SQL CE does not support ODBC connectivity, unlike SQL Server proper.
- SQL Server Developer Edition includes the same features as SQL Server Enterprise Edition, but is limited by the license to be only used as a development and test system, and not as production server. Starting early 2016, Microsoft made this edition free of charge to the public.
- Embedded (SSEE)
- SQL Server 2005 Embedded Edition is a specially configured named instance of the SQL Server Express database engine which can be accessed only by certain Windows Services.
- SQL Server Evaluation Edition, also known as the Trial Edition, has all the features of the Enterprise Edition, but is limited to 180 days, after which the tools will continue to run, but the server services will stop.
- Fast Track
- SQL Server Fast Track is specifically for enterprise-scale data warehousing storage and business intelligence processing, and runs on reference-architecture hardware that is optimized for Fast Track.
- Introduced in SQL Server Express 2012, LocalDB is a minimal, on-demand, version of SQL Server that is designed for application developers. It can also be used as an embedded database.
- Analytics Platform System (APS)
- Formerly Parallel Data Warehouse (PDW) A massively parallel processing (MPP) SQL Server appliance optimized for large-scale data warehousing such as hundreds of terabytes.
- Datawarehouse Appliance Edition
- Pre-installed and configured as part of an appliance in partnership with Dell & HP base on the Fast Track architecture. This edition does not include SQL Server Integration Services, Analysis Services, or Reporting Services.sqlcmd
- Microsoft SQL Server Data Engine / Desktop Engine / Desktop Edition. SQL Server 7 and SQL Server 2000. Intended for use as an application component, it did not include GUI management tools. Later, Microsoft also made available a web admin tool. Included with some versions of Microsoft Access, Microsoft development tools, and other editions of SQL Server.
- Personal Edition
- SQL Server 2000. Had workload or connection limits like MSDE, but no database size limit. Includes standard management tools. Intended for use as a mobile / disconnected proxy, licensed for use with SQL Server 2000 Standard edition.
- SQL Server 2008 R2 Datacenter is a full-featured edition of SQL Server and is designed for datacenters that need high levels of application support and scalability. It supports 256 logical processors and virtually unlimited memory and comes with StreamInsight Premium edition. The Datacenter edition has been retired in SQL Server 2012; all of its features are available in SQL Server 2012 Enterprise Edition.